According to the public health agency (2009), this strategy facilitates health determinants control over the people to make health improvements. It has been utilized by individuals and institutions in attempts to offer guidance in resolving major health challenges that have previously and currently befalling both developed and developing countries. In addition, this strategy has raised concern over communicable and non-communicable diseases among other issues referring to development of human and health matters. It equips society with knowledge advantageous in carrying out probable actions against health matters facing them. Precisely, this process requires incorporation of people or sometimes groups for the purpose of improvement of well being of individuals. This process becomes a success through individuals’ skills and capabilities strengthening purposed to mobilize them in taking and controlling actions on health variables as well as obtaining positive change.
Purpose of health promotion in nursing practice
To start with, it is one of the tools used in addressing health determinants, elaborated in the Ottawa charter. These determinants include, “developing personal skills, strengthening community action, and creating supportive environments for health, backed by healthy public policy” (Public Health Agency, 2009, p. 1). There have been attention shift in attempts to reorganizing health services to embrace fully health promotion.
Actions based on health promotion addresses issues that are controllable internally and externally among the individuals. The internal determinants in this case encompass individual health behaviors while the external determinants may include socioeconomic and environmental conditions. Another crucial purpose of this process is evident in its role in social development, especially the factors contributing to health inequalities. It captures principles that improve population’s well being by creating an atmosphere for a healthy society and variety of healthy choices.
Nursing roles and responsibilities evolution in health promotion
In some areas of the world, there has been a lot of evolution in the medical field especially the nursing field. Some health care systems such as those witnessed in Hong Kong with basis on biomedical paradigm have carried out reforms to integrate health promotion in health care providers. Nurses have encountered hard times in adopting the current system advocating for health and promotion of the well-being of the society. This is a major transition from the historical health care system based on illness focusing alone. One of the requirements for the nurses looking forward to fit well in the health promotion is the craving for mandatory knowledge and skills associated to the process (Baker, 2007).
There is integration of this new paradigm in the nursing curriculum to equip the students admitted as undergraduates in universities and colleges for nursing program. First year undergraduates in nursing have been prepared well as early as possible so that they fit in the current system as well as delivering satisfactory results. The expectation is that these changes will mould effective future leaders knowledgeable in health promotion as well as contributing to improvements of health and wellbeing of society (Tarrant & Chan, 2002).
Implementation methods for health promotion that encompasses all areas of nursing
There are many models used in health promotion and among them, we have adaptive, agent-host-environmental, high level wellness, holistic health, and nightingale’s theory of environment models among others. Below is the discussion of some of these models.
To start with, we have adaptive model whose implementation is through positive adaptation of social, mental, and physiological change as an indicative of health. The basis of applicability of this model is on good observation of adaptive measures.
Secondly, we have high-level wellness model initiated by Dumm in 1961. To implement this model, there is adequate dissemination of information to individuals on many issues that contribute to good health and among them is the awareness of the functionality of individual as a progressive aspect. Major stakeholders involved in this implementation include the individual, members of the family and the community at large. According to Dunn, the great point to note is “the experience of a person alive with the glow of good health, alive to the tips of their fingers with energy to burn, tingling with vitality – at times like this the world is a glorious place” (Nursing theories, 2011, p. 1).
Another method is through implementation of holistic health model coined by Edelman and Mandle, in 2002. For better results in this model, there should be a friendly atmosphere for individual mind, body and the spirit. Most nurses find it worth to consider their clients as experts in health matters concerning them. As a result, clients are able to promote their health through their own supervisions and health maintenance (Nursing theories, 2011).
Comparison of the three levels of health promotion prevention
There is a great contrast between the three levels of health promotion preventions under primary, secondary and tertiary. The contrast depends on the extent of sickness and the irreversibility of the condition faced by the patient.
Primary level covers people who are still healthy and have few incidences of disease, injury, or cases of malfunctioning. This level reduces susceptibility of people to diseases through various methods such as immunization. There is great concern on Health problems on minimizing the implications to the least degree as possible. "Primary prevention may include increasing people's resistance to illness (as in the case of immunization), decreasing or eliminating the causes of health problems, or creating an environment conducive to health rather than health problems" (Clark, 2008, p. 30; Williams, 2011, p. 1 ).
At secondary level, we consider cases that range from health threats to serious sickness. Drug administration to the patients relieves as well as minimizing pain. We have the condition of the patient regarded as not very serious.
Lastly, tertiary prevention involves addressing critical health conditions and disease regarded as chronic and communicable. The infection of such diseases is a cause of concern and prevention of diseases such as AIDS and other contagious diseases. Utilization of Quarantine and disease free zones plays an important role in averting any kind of disease incidences increase (Williams, 2011).
Thesis development and purpose
Dissertation is a document or a publication prepared for ascertaining about a topic of study by an academician. Thesis statement gives a prediction about a topic studied to facilitate proper understanding to the targeted persons. In a dissertation, it is usually expressed a thesis statements placed at the end of the introductory part of the paper. A proposal about a certain research problem is initially prepared to pave way for dissertation/thesis preparation. The proposal approval facilitates thesis development in defense of certain hypothesis. The main purpose of thesis it to capture the scope and direction of paper’s interest to fulfill the answers for the research problem. Therefore, it quantifies certain issue either partially or fully as well as disqualifying certain facts of study.
Baker D (2007) Media Review: Health Promotion in Nursing Practice, Family & Community Health, January/March 2007 Vol. 30(1) Pp 85 – 86
Public Health Agency (2009) “What is health promotion?” available from <www.publichealth.hscni.net> (25 November 2011)
Nursing theories (2011) “Models of Prevention” available from <http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory> (25 November 2011)
Tarrant, M. & Chan, S. (2002). Integrating health promotion into nursing curricula in Hong Kong” Journal of Community Health Nursing, Vol. 19 issue 2 pp 93-103.
Williams, H. (2011) "Primary prevention in health promotion.” Pulse, The. FindArticles.com. 25 Nov 2011.